Chapter 4  (Developing Through the Life Span)

 

 

1.

Which of the following is an example of imprinting?

 

A)

A 2-year-old poodle approaches a stranger who calls it.

 

B)

A 4-year-old boy imitates aggression he sees on television.

 

C)

A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.

 

D)

A 3-year-old girl is simultaneously learning two different languages.

 

 

2.

There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her:

 

A)

fluid intelligence.

 

B)

ability to recall meaningless information.

 

C)

level of life satisfaction.

 

D)

susceptibility to accidental physical injury.

 

 

3.

Elderly people are not increasingly susceptible to:

 

A)

pneumonia.

 

B)

Parkinson's disease.

 

C)

common cold viruses.

 

D)

dementia.

 

 

4.

At about 8 months of age, infants develop a fear of strangers because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their:

 

A)

schemas.

 

B)

attachments.

 

C)

theory of mind.

 

D)

self-concept.

 

 

5.

According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to:

 

A)

mistrust.

 

B)

competence.

 

C)

inferiority.

 

D)

identity.

 

 

6.

As men advance through middle adulthood they experience a gradual decline in:

 

A)

testosterone level.

 

B)

sperm count.

 

C)

ejaculation speed.

 

D)

all of the above.

 

 

7.

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a(n) ________ morality.

 

A)

conventional

 

B)

preconventional

 

C)

concrete operational

 

D)

postconventional

 

 

8.

From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural network is sprouting most rapidly in the:

 

A)

frontal lobes.

 

B)

hypothalamus.

 

C)

cerebellum.

 

D)

brainstem.

 

 

9.

Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be:

 

A)

underweight.

 

B)

autistic.

 

C)

hyperactive.

 

D)

hearing impaired.

 

 

10.

For Regis to think it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.

 

A)

conventional

 

B)

postconventional

 

C)

preconventional

 

D)

preoperational

 

 

11.

When university students forgo immediate rewards for the sake of choosing bigger delayed rewards, fMRI scans show strong activation in their ________ lobes.

 

A)

frontal

 

B)

parietal

 

C)

occipital

 

D)

temporal

 

 

12.

Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of ________ than of ________.

 

A)

men; women

 

B)

socialists; capitalists

 

C)

African Americans; white Americans

 

D)

Catholics; Protestants

 

 

13.

The formation of a placenta signals the onset of ________ development.

 

A)

ovular

 

B)

zygotic

 

C)

fetal

 

D)

embryonic

 

 

14.

Nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.

 

A)

secure attachment; imprinting

 

B)

heredity; maturation

 

C)

accommodation; assimilation

 

D)

temperament; responsive parenting

 

 

15.

Compared to middle-aged adults, older adults experience:

 

A)

positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with more intensity.

 

B)

positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with less intensity.

 

C)

positive emotions with less and negative emotions with less intensity.

 

D)

positive emotions with more and negative emotions with more intensity.

 

 

16.

The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of:

 

A)

continuity or stages.

 

B)

fluid or crystallized intelligence.

 

C)

stability or change.

 

D)

nature or nurture.

 

 

17.

The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n):

 

A)

attachment.

 

B)

identity.

 

C)

theory of mind.

 

D)

primary sex characteristic.

 

 

18.

The feelings of life satisfaction and happiness of married American women:

 

A)

are not strongly related to whether or not they are employed outside the home.

 

B)

increase dramatically in the years following the birth of children.

 

C)

decrease dramatically when their grown-up children leave the home.

 

D)

are lower than those of unmarried women of comparable age.

 

 

19.

Habituation refers to the:

 

A)

awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

 

B)

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.

 

C)

adjustment of current schemas to make sense of new information.

 

D)

biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.

 

 

20.

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.

 

A)

conventional

 

B)

preconventional

 

C)

preoperational

 

D)

formal operational

 

 

21.

Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?

 

A)

female ovaries

 

B)

male facial hair

 

C)

the male grip

 

D)

female height

 

 

22.

Research on the elderly has shown that:

 

A)

they grow increasingly fearful of death.

 

B)

they become increasingly prone to car accidents.

 

C)

they experience less life satisfaction than younger adults.

 

D)

all of the above are true.

 

 

23.

Psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff described chimpanzees' seeming ability to read the intentions of other chimps as indicative of:

 

A)

imprinting.

 

B)

a theory of mind.

 

C)

object permanence.

 

D)

crystallized intelligence.

 

 

24.

Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of:

 

A)

accommodation.

 

B)

object permanence.

 

C)

conservation.

 

D)

egocentrism.

 

 

25.

The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.

 

A)

concrete operations; formal operations

 

B)

formal operations; concrete operations

 

C)

crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence

 

D)

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

 

26.

According to Erikson, trust is to ________ as identity is to ________.

 

A)

infancy; childhood

 

B)

childhood; adolescence

 

C)

adolescence; adulthood

 

D)

infancy; adolescence

 

27.

The stability of personality traits is greater among:

 

A)

boys than among girls.

 

B)

men than among women.

 

C)

adults than among children.

 

D)

preschoolers than among adolescents.

 

 

28.

One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates:

 

A)

the rooting reflex.

 

B)

secure attachment.

 

C)

conservation.

 

D)

egocentrism.

 

 

29.

The ratio of males to females first begins declining during:

 

A)

prenatal development.

 

B)

childhood.

 

C)

adolescence.

 

D)

adulthood.

 

 

30.

Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be told that:

 

A)

human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a mother-infant attachment.

 

B)

physical contact with her infant immediately after birth would not contribute to the development of mother-infant attachment.

 

C)

infants should be left physically undisturbed during the first few hours of life so they can rest.

 

D)

as long as she can breast-feed her baby, no lasting damage will be done.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6 (Perception)

 

1.

The philosopher John Locke believed that people:

 

A)

learn to perceive the world through experience.

 

B)

are endowed at birth with perceptual skills.

 

C)

experience the whole as different from the sum of its parts.

 

D)

should be unable to adapt to an inverted visual world.

 

2.

The perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called:

 

A)

perceptual set.

 

B)

perceptual constancy.

 

C)

figureground perception.

 

D)

the phi phenomenon.

 

3.

Who emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experience?

 

A)

Kant

 

B)

Aristotle

 

C)

Locke

 

D)

Freud

 

4.

Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana couldn't prevent herself from mentally filling in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of:

 

A)

proximity.

 

B)

closure.

 

C)

convergence.

 

D)

interposition.

 

5.

As the airplane descended for a landing, the pilot saw several beautiful islands that appeared to float in a vast expanse of blue ocean water. In this instance, the ocean is a:

 

A)

figure.

 

B)

gestalt.

 

C)

ground.

 

D)

perceptual set.

 

6.

The extrasensory ability to perceive an automobile accident taking place in a distant location is to ________ as the extrasensory ability to know at any moment exactly what your best friend is thinking is to ________.

 

A)

telepathy; precognition

 

B)

precognition; psychokinesis

 

C)

psychokinesis; clairvoyance

 

D)

clairvoyance; telepathy

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.

While a student provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates:

 

A)

retinal disparity.

 

B)

stroboscopic movement.

 

C)

the Ponzo illusion.

 

D)

change blindness.

 

8.

The ability of newly hatched chicks to perceive depth best serves to support the views of:

 

A)

Locke.

 

 

B)

Kant.

 

 

C)

Freud.

 

 

D)

Aristotle.

 

 

9.

Viewing the light reflected by any object relative to the light reflected by surrounding objects is most necessary for experiencing:

 

A)

selective attention and change blindness.

 

B)

retinal disparity and convergence.

 

C)

perceptual adaptation and perceptual set.

 

D)

color constancy and lightness constancy.

 

10.

The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called:

 

A)

interposition.

 

B)

closure.

 

C)

continuity.

 

D)

convergence.

 

11.

When there is a conflict between bits of information received by two or more senses, which sense tends to dominate the others?

 

A)

hearing

 

B)

vision

 

C)

smell

 

D)

touch

 

12.

Although Sue Yen sees her chemistry professor several times a week, she didn't recognize the professor when she saw her in the grocery store. This best illustrates the importance of:

 

A)

visual capture.

 

B)

context effects.

 

C)

relative clarity.

 

D)

perceptual adaptation.

 

13.

Our inability to consciously perceive all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of:

 

A)

selective attention.

 

B)

relative clarity.

 

C)

retinal disparity.

 

D)

perceptual constancy.

 

14.

The cocktail party effect provides an example of:

 

A)

perceptual constancy.

 

B)

perceptual set.

 

C)

selective attention.

 

D)

stroboscopic movement.

 

15.

Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________.

 

A)

form; substance

 

B)

looking up; looking down

 

C)

a hot summer; a cold winter

 

D)

a white cloud; blue sky

 

16.

As the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as:

 

A)

proximity.

 

B)

linear perspective.

 

C)

closure.

 

D)

continuity.

 

17.

After learning that her new college roommate had experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, Erin incorrectly perceived her roommate's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of:

 

A)

interposition.

 

B)

perceptual set.

 

C)

the cocktail party effect.

 

D)

the phi phenomenon.

 

18.

Our ability to recognize an object without being deceived by changing sensory impressions of that object best illustrates the importance of:

 

A)

visual capture.

 

B)

the phi phenomenon.

 

C)

perceptual constancy.

 

D)

retinal disparity.

 

19.

A concept that helps us to interpret ambiguous sensations is called a:

 

A)

gestalt.

 

B)

schema.

 

C)

stereogram.

 

D)

perceptual constancy.

20.

The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky sink faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates:

 

A)

interposition.

 

B)

perceptual organization.

 

C)

the phi phenomenon.

 

D)

perceptual adaptation.

 

 

 

 

21.

Because Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the organizational principle of:

 

A)

proximity.

 

B)

convergence.

 

C)

closure.

 

D)

continuity.

 

22.

The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called:

 

A)

perceptual set.

 

B)

selective attention.

 

C)

perceptual adaptation.

 

D)

visual capture.

 

23.

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates:

 

A)

perceptual set.

 

B)

retinal disparity.

 

C)

selective attention.

 

D)

the phi phenomenon.

 

24.

Andre claims that he can make a broken watch begin to run again simply by entering a state of intense mental concentration. Andre is claiming to possess the power of:

 

A)

precognition.

 

B)

telepathy.

 

C)

clairvoyance.

 

D)

psychokinesis.

 

25.

According to the monocular cues for distance, we perceive:

 

A)

bright objects as closer than dim objects and vertical lines as shorter than identical horizontal lines.

 

B)

bright objects as farther away than dim objects and vertical lines as longer than identical horizontal lines.

 

C)

bright objects as closer than dim objects and vertical lines as longer than identical horizontal lines.

 

D)

bright objects as farther away than dim objects and vertical lines as shorter than identical horizontal lines.

 

26.

Of two identical horizontal bars in the Ponzo illusion, the bar that is:

 

A)

higher in the visual field appears to be shorter because it appears to be farther away.

 

B)

lower in the visual field appears to be shorter because it appears to be farther away.

 

C)

higher in the visual field appears to be longer because it appears to be farther away.

 

D)

lower in the visual field appears to be longer because it appears to be farther away.

 

27.

Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of:

 

A)

convergence.

 

B)

retinal disparity.

 

C)

interposition.

 

D)

visual capture.

 

28.

The presence and location of two curious rabbits influence our perceptions of the “magician's cabinet” pictured in the textbook. This provides an illustration of:

 

A)

visual capture.

 

B)

context effects.

 

C)

the Ponzo illusion.

 

D)

perceptual adaptation.

 

29.

Psychologists are skeptical about the existence of ESP because:

 

A)

ESP researchers frequently accept evidence that they know is fraudulent.

 

B)

there is no way to scientifically test claims of ESP.

 

C)

many apparent demonstrations of ESP have been shown to be a hoax.

 

D)

all of the above are true

 

30.

Young children tend to draw human figures in a rather unrealistic way. This reflects their:

 

A)

selective attention to legs and feet.

 

B)

linear perspective.

 

C)

perceptual schemas.

 

D)

retinal disparity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10  (Thinking and Language)

 

 

1.

Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language development.

 

A)

oneword

 

B)

babbling

 

C)

two-word

 

D)

phonetic

 

2.

After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates:

 

A)

the belief perseverance phenomenon.

 

B)

the availability heuristic.

 

C)

insight.

 

D)

a mental set.

 

3.

Those who are skeptical with regard to claims that apes share our capacity for language are especially likely to highlight chimps' limited ability to use:

 

A)

morphemes.

 

B)

heuristics.

 

C)

syntax.

 

D)

phonemes.

 

4.

Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates:

 

A)

the availability heuristic.

 

B)

confirmation bias.

 

C)

functional fixedness.

 

D)

the representativeness heuristic.

 

5.

Chomksy suggested that diverse human languages share a:

 

A)

universal grammar.

 

B)

surface structure.

 

C)

outcome simulation.

 

D)

category hierarchy.

 

6.

Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that:

 

A)

infancy is a critical period for language development.

 

B)

all languages share a similar grammar.

 

C)

our linguistic proficiencies influence our social status.

 

D)

words shape the way people think.

 

 

7.

With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?

 

A)

A penguin is a bird.

 

B)

A goose is a bird.

 

C)

A robin is a bird.

 

D)

An ostrich is a bird.

 

8.

A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:

 

A)

the availability heuristic.

 

B)

belief perseverance.

 

C)

an algorithm.

 

D)

functional fixedness.

 

9.

The problem-solving abilities of forest-dwelling chimpanzees are best illustrated by their naturally developed use of:

 

A)

sign language.

 

B)

hand tools.

 

C)

heuristics.

 

D)

outcomes simulations.

 

10.

Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating?

 

A)

schema

 

B)

heuristic

 

C)

cognition

 

D)

syntax

 

11.

When Larina started college, she was certain that she would never smoke marijuana. By the end of her freshman year, however, Larina had used this drug on three different occasions. Larina's experience best illustrates:

 

A)

the availability heuristic.

 

B)

confirmation bias.

 

C)

overconfidence.

 

D)

the framing effect.

 

12.

Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates:

 

A)

functional fixedness.

 

B)

the framing effect.

 

C)

the representativeness heuristic.

 

D)

overconfidence.

 

 

13.

The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that:

 

A)

infants babble phonemes that occur in their parents' native language.

 

B)

toddlers maintain a capacity to discriminate phonemes they have never heard.

 

C)

people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.

 

D)

preschoolers often overgeneralize certain rules of grammatical structure.

 

 

14.

A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the:

 

A)

confirmation bias.

 

B)

representativeness heuristic.

 

C)

belief perseverance phenomenon.

 

D)

availability heuristic.

 

 

15.

English words are constructed from about ________ different phonemes.

 

A)

5

 

B)

6

 

C)

26

 

D)

40

 

 

16.

Which of the following would be most characteristic of a 2-year-old's telegraphic speech?

 

A)

“a doggy”

 

B)

“eat apple”

 

C)

“to store”

 

D)

“ball pretty”

 

 

17.

Andre first became suspicious of his roommate's honesty while trying to account for his own missing wallet. Although Andre later recalled that he had left his wallet in the glove compartment of his own car, his newly formed doubt about his roommate's honesty remained as strong as ever. Andre's irrational suspicion of his roommate best illustrates:

 

A)

confirmation bias.

 

B)

the representativeness heuristic.

 

C)

the belief perseverance phenomenon.

 

D)

the framing effect.

 

 

18.

The word “cats” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).

 

A)

2; 1

 

B)

4; 1

 

C)

2; 4

 

D)

4; 2

 

 

19.

In elementary school and high school, Charlie got away with copying his test answers from classmates. Because the college has test proctors who are very observant, Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie's strategy for passing tests illustrates the consequences of:

 

A)

functional fixedness.

 

B)

a mental set.

 

C)

confirmation bias.

 

D)

the availability heuristic.

 

 

20.

When we use the word “automobile” to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n):

 

A)

mental set.

 

B)

heuristic.

 

C)

concept.

 

D)

algorithm.

 

 

21.

Research participants were asked to identify a word that could be associated meaningfully with each of three other words. Solutions that occurred with sudden insight were accompanied by a burst of activity in the brain's ________ lobe.

 

A)

right temporal

 

B)

left temporal

 

C)

right occipital

 

D)

left occipital

 

 

22.

Research findings suggest that the best advice to give people who want to avoid belief perseverance is:

 

A)

“Try to justify your positions.”

 

B)

“Consider the opposite.”

 

C)

“Don't draw hasty conclusions.”

 

D)

“Be as objective as possible.”

 

 

23.

We fear too little those events that will claim lives:

 

A)

accidentally.

 

B)

undramatically.

 

C)

in the near future.

 

D)

one person at a time.

 

 

24.

Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.

 

A)

one-word

 

B)

telegraphic

 

C)

babbling

 

D)

syntactic

 

 

25.

People are less upset when they miss getting an early payment discount than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. This best illustrates the importance of:

 

A)

belief perseverance.

 

B)

confirmation bias.

 

C)

framing.

 

D)

the representativeness heuristic.

 

 

26.

College students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of:

 

A)

functional fixedness.

 

B)

the availability heuristic.

 

C)

the representativeness heuristic.

 

D)

overconfidence.

 

 

27.

Psychologist are most likely to question whether chimps have the capacity to:

 

A)

infer another chimp's mental states.

 

B)

discern numerical order.

 

C)

transmit cultural innovations.

 

D)

form concepts.

 

 

28.

Jacquelyn suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancy-induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Jacquelyn's conclusion best illustrates the influence of:

 

A)

confirmation bias.

 

B)

the availability heuristic.

 

C)

the representativeness heuristic.

 

D)

functional fixedness.

 

 

29.

The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called:

 

A)

functional fixedness.

 

B)

the availability heuristic.

 

C)

confirmation bias.

 

D)

belief perseverance.

 

 

30.

Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the:

 

A)

framing effect.

 

B)

confirmation bias.

 

C)

representativeness heuristic.

 

D)

availability heuristic.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11 (Intelligence)

 

1.

Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have:

 

A)

avoided questions that require familiarity with any specific culture.

 

B)

helped limit reliance on educators' subjectively biased judgments of students' academic potential.

 

C)

provided an objective measure of teaching effectiveness in different public school systems.

 

D)

demonstrated that the g factor underlies a variety of intellectual skills.

 

 

2.

Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a(n):

 

A)

chess tournament.

 

B)

speed-reading tournament.

 

C)

spelling bee.

 

D)

speech-giving contest.

 

3.

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.

 

A)

reliability

 

B)

achievement

 

C)

aptitude

 

D)

intelligence

 

4.

Psychologists measure the correlation between aptitude test scores and school grades in order to assess the ________ of the aptitude test.

 

A)

reliability

 

B)

standardization

 

C)

normal distribution

 

D)

validity

 

5.

Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to:

 

A)

provide a quantitative estimate of inherited intellectual potential.

 

B)

distinguish between academic and practical intelligence.

 

C)

identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes.

 

D)

assess general capacity for goaldirected adaptive behavior.

 

6.

If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of:

 

A)

standardization.

 

B)

predictive validity.

 

C)

reliability.

 

D)

content validity.

 

7.

Research on gender and emotional intelligence suggests that women are more skilled than men at:

 

A)

avoiding the experience of emotional ambivalence.

 

B)

preventing emotions from distorting reasoning.

 

C)

interpreting others' facial expressions of emotion.

 

D)

delaying emotional gratification in pursuit of long-term goals.

8.

Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a(n):

 

A)

spelling bee.

 

B)

math test.

 

C)

computer programming contest.

 

D)

chess tournament.

 

9.

About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115.

 

A)

30

 

B)

50

 

C)

68

 

D)

96

 

10.

The high positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of the SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ________ of these test scores.

 

A)

reliability

 

B)

heritability

 

C)

content validity

 

D)

normal distribution

 

11.

The WAIS consists of separate ________ subtests.

 

A)

intelligence and creativity

 

B)

aptitude and achievement

 

C)

convergent and divergent thinking

 

D)

verbal and performance

 

12.

Achievement tests are designed to:

 

A)

measure desire and potential capacity to successfully meet challenges.

 

B)

assess ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

 

C)

compare an individual's personality with those of highly successful people.

 

D)

assess learned knowledge or skills.

 

13.

Who would have been the least enthusiastic about a reliance on eugenics for the improvement of human intellectual functioning?

 

A)

Plato

 

B)

Binet

 

C)

Terman

 

D)

Darwin

 

14.

The most creative scientists are those who:

 

A)

investigate issues about which they have very little previous knowledge.

 

B)

approach problems they find intrinsically interesting and satisfying to study.

 

C)

think about the benefits to themselves and society that might result from their work.

 

D)

do all of the above.

 

15.

Compared to Gardner, Sternberg has identified ______ independent dimensions of intelligence and his forms of intelligence have been ______ reliably measured.

 

A)

more; more

 

B)

fewer; less

 

C)

more; less

 

D)

fewer; more

16.

Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test in order to measure the ________ of a test.

 

A)

validity

 

B)

reliability

 

C)

standardization

 

D)

normal distribution

 

17.

Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that can be used to:

 

A)

derive IQ scores by comparing mental age with chronological age.

 

B)

extract test norms from a standardization sample.

 

C)

identify clusters of closely related test items.

 

D)

provide a quantitative estimate of heritability.

 

18.

Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the:

 

A)

extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity.

 

B)

need to standardize intelligence tests.

 

C)

possibility of predicting people's academic success from intelligence test scores.

 

D)

definition of mental age.

 

19.

In the early twentieth century, the U.S. government developed intelligence tests to evaluate newly arriving immigrants.  Poor test scores among immigrants who were not of Anglo-Saxon heritage were attributed by some psychologists of that day to:

 

A)

stereotype threat.

 

B)

innate mental inferiority.

 

C)

savant syndrome.

 

D)

divergent thinking.

 

20.

Individuals with Down syndrome are:

 

A)

unlikely to have difficulty in regular school classes.

 

B)

mentally retarded due to neglect during infancy.

 

C)

mentally retarded, except for one specific ability in which they excel.

 

D)

born with an extra chromosome.

 

21.

The intelligence test scores of adopted children are least likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during:

 

A)

middle childhood.

 

B)

early adolescence.

 

C)

middle adolescence.

 

D)

early adulthood.

 

22.

Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity?

 

A)

Japanese children have higher average intelligence scores than do American children.

 

B)

Fraternal twins are more similar in their intelligence scores than are ordinary siblings.

 

C)

The intelligence scores of children are positively correlated with the intelligence scores of their parents.

 

D)

Identical twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together.

23.

Experts who defend intelligence tests against the charge of being culturally biased and discriminatory would be most likely to highlight the ________ of intelligence tests.

 

A)

factor analysis

 

B)

content validity

 

C)

predictive validity

 

D)

reliability

 

24.

A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:

 

A)

validity.

 

B)

standardization.

 

C)

reliability.

 

D)

the g factor.

 

25.

Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates:

 

A)

neural plasticity.

 

B)

factor analysis.

 

C)

predictive validity.

 

D)

divergent thinking.

 

26.

In order to assess whether intelligence is a single trait or a collection of several distinct abilities, psychologists have made extensive use of:

 

A)

the normal curve.

 

B)

criterion-based validation.

 

C)

standardization.

 

D)

factor analysis.

 

27.

Although Nicole scored well above average on the SAT, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of:

 

A)

convergent thinking.

 

B)

the g factor.

 

C)

mental age.

 

D)

emotional intelligence.

 

28.

Boys outnumber girls at the ________ levels of reading ability and at the ________ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability.

 

A)

high; low

 

B)

low; low

 

C)

high; high

 

D)

low; high

 

29.

Research on intelligence and brain functioning indicates that highly intelligent children demonstrate ______ than their less intelligent counterparts.

 

A)

smaller synaptic gaps

 

B)

longer axons

 

C)

greater neural plasticity

 

D)

higher dopamine levels

 

 

 

30.

Sorting children into “gifted child” education programs is most likely to be criticized for:

 

A)

overemphasizing the genetic determinants of giftedness.

 

B)

widening the achievement gap between higher- and lower-ability groups.

 

C)

claiming that intelligence test scores can predict children's academic success.

 

D)

underestimating the extent to which a g factor underlies success in a wide variety of tasks.