Chapter 15  (Personality)

 

1.

Personality inventories are designed to assess several ________ at once.

 

A)

attachment styles

 

B)

defense mechanisms.

 

C)

attributional styles

 

D)

traits

 

2.

The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her:

 

A)

ideal self.

 

B)

gender identity.

 

C)

attributional style.

 

D)

unconditional positive regard.

 

3.

Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it:

 

A)

denies humankind's capacity for evil.

 

B)

focuses more on a person's defense mechanisms.

 

C)

involves the scientific study of optimal human functioning.

 

D)

has less application to educational settings.

 

4.

The parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape best illustrate the importance of:

 

A)

the spotlight effect.

 

B)

an internal locus of control.

 

C)

unconscious thought.

 

D)

the self-reference phenomenon.

 

5.

The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's:

 

A)

current feelings of personal control.

 

B)

specific political goals for the future.

 

C)

general feelings of optimism about the future.

 

D)

past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

 

 

6.

Henry Murray found that children's perceptions of photographs were biased by their previous participation in a frightening game. Their perceptual reactions most clearly highlighted the potential value of:

 

A)

projective tests.

 

B)

free association.

 

C)

unconditional positive regard.

 

D)

an internal locus of control.

 

7.

Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of:

 

A)

projection.

 

B)

regression.

 

C)

rationalization.

 

D)

reaction formation.

 

8.

Larry studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of himself being unable to get a job after graduation. Larry's diligence best illustrates the motivational impact of:

 

A)

an internal locus of control.

 

B)

unconditioned positive regard.

 

C)

possible selves.

 

D)

the spotlight effect.

 

9.

The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to:

 

A)

frightening pictures.

 

B)

ambiguous stories.

 

C)

meaningless inkblots.

 

D)

incomplete sentences.

 

10.

Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that:

 

A)

much of our mental functioning is unconscious.

 

B)

people often struggle with conflicting wishes.

 

C)

childhood experiences influence our adulthood relationships.

 

D)

sexual drives are central to personality development.

 

11.

Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part?

 

A)

“I really didn't prepare well enough for that test.”

 

B)

“I wasn't concentrating as hard as I should have during the test.”

 

C)

“I lack ability in history.”

 

D)

“I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing.”

 

12.

Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as:

 

A)

projection.

 

B)

fixation.

 

C)

displacement.

 

D)

repression.

 

 

13.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.

 

A)

predicting; assessing

 

B)

describing; explaining

 

C)

changing; analyzing

 

D)

interpreting; observing

 

14.

Low self-esteem is associated with:

 

A)

an internal locus of control.

 

B)

self-serving bias.

 

C)

unhappiness.

 

D)

unconditional positive regard.

 

15.

Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by:

 

A)

selectively studying people with qualities he admired.

 

B)

interpreting their flattering self-descriptions as a self-serving bias.

 

C)

overemphasizing the value of their loyalty to cultural norms.

 

D)

using projective tests to assess their motives.

 

16.

Placing a high value on activities in which we excel is especially likely to promote:

 

A)

the spotlight effect.

 

B)

high self-esteem.

 

C)

an external locus of control.

 

D)

the self-reference phenomenon.

 

17.

When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often experience the discomfort of:

 

A)

self-serving bias.

 

B)

the false consensus effect.

 

C)

information overload.

 

D)

the spotlight effect.

 

18.

Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as Allport is to the ________ perspective.

 

A)

behavioral

 

B)

humanistic

 

C)

trait

 

D)

socialcognitive

 

19.

Walter Mischel's studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. According to Mischel, this should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing the consistency of:

 

A)

repression.

 

B)

personality traits.

 

C)

reciprocal determinism.

 

D)

unconditional positive regard.

 

20.

According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the:

 

A)

collective unconscious.

 

B)

ego.

 

C)

id.

 

D)

superego.

 

21.

According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with:

 

A)

an oral fixation.

 

B)

free association.

 

C)

learned helplessness.

 

D)

the Oedipus complex.

 

22.

Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most closely related to one's level of creativity?

 

A)

extraversion

 

B)

openness

 

C)

emotional stability

 

D)

conscientiousness

 

23.

Arjean's opinions are so dependent on what her friends think that she will swallow just about anything they tell her. Freud would have suggested that Arjean demonstrates a(n):

 

A)

fixation.

 

B)

free association.

 

C)

reaction formation.

 

D)

collective unconscious.

 

24.

Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells her friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates:

 

A)

reaction formation.

 

B)

projection.

 

C)

displacement.

 

D)

regression.

 

25.

Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's ________ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires.

 

A)

collective unconscious

 

B)

superego

 

C)

Oedipus complex

 

D)

ego

 

26.

When 16-year-old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car. He decided, instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college education. Hafez shows signs of a:

 

A)

weak superego.

 

B)

weak id.

 

C)

strong collective unconscious.

 

D)

strong ego.

 

27.

Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?

 

A)

MMPI

 

B)

Rorschach

 

C)

TAT

 

D)

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

 

28.

Contemporary psychologists are least likely to agree with Freud's belief that:

 

A)

conscience and gender identity form during the process of resolving the Oedipus complex.

 

B)

conscious awareness of our own mental processes is very limited.

 

C)

memories are often distorted and incomplete.

 

D)

defense mechanisms help protect individuals from anxiety.

 

29.

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:

 

A)

manifest content and latent content.

 

B)

the collective unconscious and the personal unconscious.

 

C)

the actual self and the ideal self.

 

D)

an internal locus of control and an external locus of control.

 

30.

Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called:

 

A)

external locus of control.

 

B)

self-serving bias.

 

C)

the spotlight effect.

 

D)

fixation.

 

 

Chapter 16 (Psychological Disorders)

 

 

1.

Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the “King of the Universe.” Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from:

 

A)

delusions.

 

B)

obsessions.

 

C)

hallucinations.

 

D)

dissociative identity disorder.

 

 

2.

A biological perspective would be least helpful for explaining the:

 

A)

prevalence of schizophrenia throughout the world.

 

B)

fluctuations in mood experienced by those suffering a bipolar disorder.

 

C)

fear of snakes experienced by a high percentage of Americans.

 

D)

dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the past 40 or so years.

 

 

3.

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from a(n):

 

A)

dysthymic disorder.

 

B)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

C)

generalized anxiety disorder.

 

D)

phobia.

 

 

4.

Some psychologists believe that partly due to a broadening definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been overdiagnosing:

 

A)

panic disorder.

 

B)

PTSD.

 

C)

ADHD.

 

D)

schizophrenia.

 

 

5.

Evidence suggests that prenatal viral infections contribute to:

 

A)

generalized anxiety disorders.

 

B)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

C)

schizophrenia.

 

D)

bipolar disorders.

 

 

6.

William, an airplane pilot, is unable to remember anything of a bombing raid in which his plane was severely damaged and two crew members were killed. Because he himself suffered no physical injuries, psychologists suspect that William probably suffers from a:

 

A)

panic disorder.

 

B)

dissociative disorder.

 

C)

phobia.

 

D)

bipolar disorder.

 

 

7.

Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from:

 

A)

an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

B)

delusions of grandeur.

 

C)

a dissociative disorder.

 

D)

hallucinations.

 

 

8.

Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of:

 

A)

mania.

 

B)

an obsession.

 

C)

agoraphobia.

 

D)

panic disorder.

 

 

9.

An adopted child's chances of developing schizophrenia ________ if the biological parents have schizophrenia. The child's chances ________ if the adopted parents have schizophrenia.

 

A)

increase; increase

 

B)

do not increase; do

 

C)

increase; do not increase

 

D)

do not increase; increase

 

 

10.

Vigorous activity in the thalamus of schizophrenia patients has been found to be associated with:

 

A)

hearing voices.

 

B)

flat affect.

 

C)

disorganized speech.

 

D)

repetitive rocking motions.

 

 

11.

DSM-IV focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to:

 

A)

facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.

 

B)

shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis.

 

C)

avoid invading clients' psychological privacy.

 

D)

reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.

 

 

12.

Rats who received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from:

 

A)

stimulus generalization.

 

B)

observational learning.

 

C)

reinforcement.

 

D)

classical conditioning.

 

 

13.

Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with:

 

A)

panic attacks.

 

B)

schizophrenia.

 

C)

depression.

 

D)

dissociative disorders.

 

 

14.

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate:

 

A)

ADHD.

 

B)

depression.

 

C)

schizophrenia.

 

D)

dissociative disorders.

 

 

15.

Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry's behavior is most characteristic of:

 

A)

histrionic personal disorder.

 

B)

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

 

C)

generalized anxiety disorder.

 

D)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

 

16.

Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of:

 

A)

bipolar disorder.

 

B)

an anxiety disorder.

 

C)

catatonia.

 

D)

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

 

 

17.

Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n):

 

A)

decrease in self-focused thinking.

 

B)

increased expectation of negative outcomes.

 

C)

increased externalization of blame.

 

D)

increased obsession with experiencing physical pleasure.

 

 

18.

In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are:

 

A)

more intense and more prolonged.

 

B)

less intense and less prolonged.

 

C)

more intense and less prolonged.

 

D)

less intense and more prolonged.

 

 

19.

People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.

 

A)

North America; February

 

B)

Asia; September

 

C)

Australia; February

 

D)

Europe; September

 

 

20.

The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of:

 

A)

antisocial personality disorder.

 

B)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

C)

bipolar disease.

 

D)

schizophrenia.

 

 

21.

Psychologists are least likely to suggest that ________ contribute(s) to the development of schizophrenia.

 

A)

neglectful child-rearing practices

 

B)

prenatal viral infections

 

C)

impaired glutamate activity

 

D)

shrinkage of cerebral tissue

 

 

22.

Research regarding depression indicates that:

 

A)

depression is typically unrelated to stressful life events.

 

B)

depression is unlikely to be overcome without professional help.

 

C)

depression is associated with abnormally high levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

 

D)

with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence.

 

 

23.

Of those who talk of suicide, ________ actually attempt suicide. Of those who attempt suicide, ________ succeed in completing the act.

 

A)

only a few; most

 

B)

most; only a few

 

C)

only a few; only a few

 

D)

most; most

 

 

24.

Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor:

 

A)

delusions of grandeur.

 

B)

histrionic personality.

 

C)

learned helplessness.

 

D)

resilience.

 

 

25.

Anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. He has swindled several elderly people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is evidence of:

 

A)

schizophrenia.

 

B)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

C)

a personality disorder.

 

D)

a dissociative disorder.

 

 

26.

Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenthfloor apartment. In order to reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing a(n):

 

A)

panic disorder.

 

B)

bipolar disorder.

 

C)

generalized anxiety disorder.

 

D)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

 

27.

During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to experience:

 

A)

high self-esteem.

 

B)

delusions of persecution.

 

C)

uncontrollable grief and despair.

 

D)

visual or auditory hallucinations.

 

 

28.

DSM-IV is most likely to be criticized for:

 

A)

attempting to explain behavior by simply labeling it.

 

B)

classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered.

 

C)

failing to base diagnoses on observable behaviors.

 

D)

inhibiting scientific efforts to discover the underlying causes of psychological disorders.

 

 

29.

Low birth weight is a known risk factor for:

 

A)

dissociative identity disorder.

 

B)

major depressive disorder.

 

C)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

D)

schizophrenia.

 

 

30.

Which of the following has been pinpointed as an early warning sign for the subsequent onset of schizophrenia?

 

A)

periodic panic attacks

 

B)

sudden weight increase

 

C)

violent behavior

 

D)

poor muscle coordination

 

Chapter 17 (Therapy)

 

 

1.

Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of:

 

A)

behavior therapy.

 

B)

humanistic therapy.

 

C)

psychodynamic therapy.

 

D)

cognitive therapy.

 

 

2.

In one massive experiment, potentially delinquent boys were assigned to a five-year treatment program that included professional counseling and family assistance. Many years later, Joan McCord's investigation of this program's effectiveness revealed that:

 

A)

clients who received the special treatment subsequently had fewer incidents of juvenile delinquency.

 

B)

clients typically underestimated the truly positive effects of this program on their own lives.

 

C)

only the therapists who were involved in the program could accurately gauge its effectiveness.

 

D)

clients' accounts of the program's effectiveness were often misleading and overly positive.

 

 

3.

Mr. Gotanda mistakenly believed that a single intake interview in which he simply described his numerous symptoms to a therapist was a treatment for his distress. His immediate relief from many of his symptoms following this session best illustrates:

 

A)

systematic desensitization.

 

B)

unconditional positive regard.

 

C)

transference.

 

D)

the placebo effect.

 

 

4.

Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to:

 

A)

focus more on other people's feelings than on their own.

 

B)

adapt more readily to social norms and expectations.

 

C)

imitate the behavior of others who are happy and successful.

 

D)

take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions.

 

 

5.

The placebo effect typically leads us to ________ the effectiveness of therapy, and regression toward the mean typically leads us to ________ the effectiveness of therapy.

 

A)

overestimate; underestimate

 

B)

underestimate; overestimate

 

C)

overestimate; overestimate

 

D)

underestimate; underestimate

 

 

6.

The approach that has helped autistic children learn to function successfully in school involves:

 

A)

operant conditioning.

 

B)

systematic desensitization.

 

C)

the double-blind technique.

 

D)

aversive conditioning.

 

 

7.

Which of the following is the best description of behavior modification?

 

A)

Patients are helped to identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.

 

B)

Patients' actions are influenced by controlling the consequences of those actions.

 

C)

What a client says during the course of therapy is repeated or rephrased.

 

D)

Attention is focused on clients' positive and negative feelings toward their therapists.

 

 

8.

Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in a loss of memory?

 

A)

aversive conditioning

 

B)

the double-blind technique

 

C)

systematic desensitization

 

D)

electroconvulsive therapy

 

 

9.

Professor Bensfield emphasizes that recovery from bipolar disorder involves a continuous interplay among patients' physical reactions to mood-stabilizing drugs, their positive expectations that their lives will improve, and the supportive responses of patients' families and friends. The professor's emphasis best illustrates a(n) ________ approach to therapy.

 

A)

psychodynamic

 

B)

client-centered

 

C)

biopsychosocial

 

D)

operant conditioning

 

 

10.

Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of flying?

 

A)

aversive conditioning

 

B)

eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

 

C)

virtual reality exposure therapy

 

D)

the double-blind technique

 

 

11.

Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of:

 

A)

unconditional positive regard.

 

B)

the placebo effect.

 

C)

transference.

 

D)

free association.

 

 

12.

Empathic understanding of the patient's subjective experiences is a major goal of a:

 

A)

psychoanalyst.

 

B)

biomedical therapist.

 

C)

client-centered therapist.

 

D)

behavior therapist.

 

 

13.

A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who:

 

A)

prescribes the use of drugs as part of psychotherapy.

 

B)

emphasizes that active listening is the major technique in all effective therapies.

 

C)

prefers to engage in therapy in a group setting.

 

D)

uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches.

 

 

14.

Psychologists with expertise in research, the assessment of psychological disorders, and the practice of psychotherapy are typically:

 

A)

psychopharmacologists.

 

B)

clinical psychologists.

 

C)

psychoanalysts.

 

D)

psychiatrists.

 

 

15.

Prozac is an antidepressant drug that partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of ________ from synapses.

 

A)

serotonin

 

B)

dopamine

 

C)

acetylcholine

 

D)

chlorpromazine

 

 

16.

A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is:

 

A)

stress inoculation training.

 

B)

systematic desensitization.

 

C)

active listening.

 

D)

free association.

 

 

17.

A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger unwanted responses is called:

 

A)

light exposure therapy.

 

B)

transference.

 

C)

counterconditioning.

 

D)

unconditional positive regard.

 

 

18.

Melanie's therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates:

 

A)

systematic desensitization.

 

B)

cognitive-behavior therapy.

 

C)

client-centered therapy.

 

D)

psychodynamic therapy.

 

 

19.

A National Institute of Mental Health study compared three depression treatments: cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and a standard drug therapy. Patients in ________ improved more than those in a control group.

 

A)

the cognitive therapy group

 

B)

the interpersonal therapy group

 

C)

the standard drug therapy group

 

D)

all of the above groups

 

 

20.

In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?

 

A)

electroconvulsive therapy

 

B)

systematic desensitization

 

C)

cognitive therapy

 

D)

aversive conditioning

 

 

21.

Which form of therapy is most likely to be criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven?

 

A)

client-centered therapy

 

B)

psychoanalysis

 

C)

cognitive-behavior therapy

 

D)

systematic desensitization

 

 

22.

Although Shawn felt terribly depressed when he began psychotherapy, he was much happier by the time he had completed therapy. It would be reasonable to attribute some of his improvement to:

 

A)

systematic desensitization.

 

B)

the double-blind technique.

 

C)

transference.

 

D)

regression toward the mean.

 

 

23.

Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie:

 

A)

psychoanalysis.

 

B)

psychosurgery.

 

C)

drug therapy.

 

D)

preventive mental health.

 

 

24.

The least used biomedical intervention for changing behavior is:

 

A)

aversive conditioning.

 

B)

electroconvulsive therapy.

 

C)

psychosurgery.

 

D)

drug therapy.

 

 

25.

Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?

 

A)

client-centered therapy

 

B)

systematic desensitization

 

C)

cognitive therapy

 

D)

light exposure therapy

 

 

26.

Antidepressant drugs are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of:

 

A)

auditory hallucinations.

 

B)

tardive dyskinesia.

 

C)

anxiety disorders.

 

D)

antisocial personality disorder.

 

 

27.

In programs to treat alcoholism, clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. The therapist is using a technique known as:

 

A)

operant conditioning.

 

B)

systematic desensitization.

 

C)

aversive conditioning.

 

D)

transference.

 

 

28.

By earning a client's trust, empathic and caring therapists promote:

 

A)

meta-analysis.

 

B)

a therapeutic alliance.

 

C)

an eclectic approach.

 

D)

the double-blind technique.

 

 

29.

In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when one was repeatedly presented while he was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of:

 

A)

stress inoculation training.

 

B)

exposure therapies.

 

C)

free association.

 

D)

the placebo effect.

 

 

30.

Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of:

 

A)

systematic desensitization.

 

B)

rTMS.

 

C)

virtual reality exposure therapy.

 

D)

EMDR.

 

 

Chapter 18 (Social Psychology)

 

 

1.

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people:

 

A)

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

 

B)

become more extreme in their opinions following group discussion.

 

C)

more readily comply with a large request if they previously complied with a small request.

 

D)

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar.

 

 

2.

A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates:

 

A)

the bystander effect.

 

B)

deindividuation.

 

C)

group polarization.

 

D)

social loafing.

 

 

3.

Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of:

 

A)

social facilitation.

 

B)

the fundamental attribution error.

 

C)

group polarization.

 

D)

deindividuation.

 

 

4.

Felippe, a 19-year-old university freshman, is very talkative, intelligent, assertive, and politically conservative. Research suggests that he would be most likely to develop a close friendship with:

 

A)

Toren, who is talkative and assertive.

 

B)

Erez, who is quiet and passive.

 

C)

Tom, who is intelligent and quiet.

 

D)

Fabio, who is politically liberal and talkative.

 

 

5.

Pablo and Sabina argued bitterly about which of them should have use of the family car that night. Neither realized, however, that Sabina needed the car only in the early evening and that Pablo needed it only in the late evening. Pablo and Sabina's failure to resolve their argument for their mutual benefit best illustrates the dangers of:

 

A)

superordinate goals.

 

B)

ingroup bias.

 

C)

a win-lose orientation.

 

D)

GRIT.

 

 

6.

After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is best explained in terms of the:

 

A)

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

 

B)

fundamental attribution error.

 

C)

bystander effect.

 

D)

frustration-aggression principle.

 

 

7.

Twenty Wallonians were arrested for nonviolent crimes, whereas 20 Pireaneans were arrested for violent crimes. The tendency to judge that more crimes were committed by Pireaneans than by Wallonians best illustrates the power of:

 

A)

ingroup bias.

 

B)

the mere exposure effect.

 

C)

deindividuation.

 

D)

vivid cases.

 

 

8.

On which of the following tasks would the presence of others be most likely to lead to improved performance?

 

A)

reciting the months of the year in alphabetical order

 

B)

learning foreign language words

 

C)

counting backward from 10 to 1

 

D)

learning nonsense syllables

 

 

9.

On the basis of what Americans say, in the last half-century:

 

A)

gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has increased.

 

B)

gender prejudice has increased and racial prejudice has decreased.

 

C)

gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has decreased.

 

D)

gender prejudice has increased and racial prejudice has increased.

 

 

10.

Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by:

 

A)

ingroup bias.

 

B)

group polarization.

 

C)

superordinate goals.

 

D)

the mere exposure effect.

 

 

11.

An example of the fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others' behavior is influenced by:

 

A)

genetics.

 

B)

assigned roles.

 

C)

their level of motivation.

 

D)

personality traits.

 

 

12.

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.

 

A)

normative influences; informational influences

 

B)

informational influences; normative influences

 

C)

personal dispositions; situational influences

 

D)

situational influences; personal dispositions

 

 

13.

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:

 

A)

deindividuation.

 

B)

the bystander effect.

 

C)

the mere exposure effect.

 

D)

groupthink.

 

 

14.

When a mild-mannered woman had an electrode implanted in her amygdala, she:

 

A)

developed more aggressive tendencies.

 

B)

acted just as she had before the implantation.

 

C)

became even milder, unable to even say “no” to anyone's request for help.

 

D)

lost her ability to remember events that had recently occurred.

 

 

15.

We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.

 

A)

informational influence; normative influence

 

B)

situational constraints; personality traits

 

C)

normative influence; informational influence

 

D)

personality traits; situational constraints

 

 

16.

The experience of empathy is most directly facilitated by:

 

A)

the bystander effect.

 

B)

the chameleon effect.

 

C)

mirror-image perceptions.

 

D)

social facilitation.

 

 

17.

Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which:

 

A)

two subgroups of individuals have opposing opinions.

 

B)

individuals share a similar opinion.

 

C)

each individual has a unique perspective.

 

D)

individuals have not formed any opinion.

 

 

18.

Montel, a white university student, is on academic probation for poor grades. Ever since he received notice of his probation, Montel has become increasingly hostile toward racial minority students and staff on campus. His increasing hostility can best be explained in terms of:

 

A)

ingroup bias.

 

B)

the just-world phenomenon.

 

C)

the scapegoat theory.

 

D)

the reciprocity norm.

 

 

19.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

 

A)

norms and roles

 

B)

superordinate goals

 

C)

belief-based feelings

 

D)

dispositional attributions

 

 

20.

Noncompetitive contact between members of two different ethnic groups is likely to reduce prejudice when the contact is between individuals with:

 

A)

ingroup bias.

 

B)

implicit prejudice.

 

C)

equal status.

 

D)

mirror-image perceptions.

 

 

21.

Which of the following people would be most likely to help Gita study for her history exam?

 

A)

Gita's older brother, who probably has nothing better to do that evening

 

B)

Gita's mother, who is excited about the unexpected bonus she just received from her employer

 

C)

Gita's father, who always points out how differently men and women think and act

 

D)

Gita's younger sister, whose boyfriend just canceled their date for the next evening

 

 

22.

Our tendency to establish and maintain warm relationships with people if they are physically attractive is best explained in terms of:

 

A)

the bystander effect.

 

B)

social exchange theory.

 

C)

the just-world phenomenon.

 

D)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

 

 

23.

Professor Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. He personally disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Jones is most likely, however, to vote in favor of their plan if:

 

A)

the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.

 

B)

he stated his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion.

 

C)

committee voting is done by private ballot.

 

D)

he has a high level of self-esteem.

 

 

24.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:

 

A)

cognitive dissonance.

 

B)

implicit prejudice.

 

C)

deindividuation.

 

D)

social loafing.

 

 

25.

A person's behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when:

 

A)

the attitudes are implicit rather than explicit.

 

B)

social influences on behavior are minimal.

 

C)

the person has not publicly communicated those attitudes.

 

D)

the attitudes are discrepant with most other people's opinions.

 

 

26.

Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.

 

A)

deindividuation; social facilitation

 

B)

social facilitation; deindividuation

 

C)

informational social influence; normative social influence

 

D)

normative social influence; informational social influence

 

 

27.

We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel:

 

A)

little sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

 

B)

little sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally approve.

 

C)

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

 

D)

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally approve.

 

 

28.

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to:

 

A)

neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

 

B)

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

 

C)

lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.

 

D)

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

 

 

29.

Which of the following individuals most clearly adheres to a stereotype?

 

A)

Vladimir, who is especially attracted to Latin-American women

 

B)

Peter, who feels very uncomfortable interacting with African-Americans

 

C)

Robin, who is convinced that university professors are usually impractical and forgetful

 

D)

Cyril, who never hires people over age 50 to work in his restaurant

 

 

30.

The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because:

 

A)

an increasing familiarity with novel stimuli facilitates liking.

 

B)

the loss of self-restraint often accompanies arousal and anonymity.

 

C)

arousal encourages performance of the most likely response.

 

D)

group discussion enhances whatever attitude is initially dominant in the group.