Chapter 1  (Thinking Critically with Psychological Science)

 

 

1.

Seven members of a girls' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of raffle tickets: $5, $9, $4, $11, $6, $4, and $3. In this distribution of individual earnings, the:

 

A)

median is greater than the mean and greater than the mode.

 

B)

median is less than the mean and less than the mode.

 

C)

median is greater than the mean and less than the mode.

 

D)

median is less than the mean and greater than the mode.

 

 

2.

A correlation coefficient is a measure of the:

 

A)

difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

 

B)

direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.

 

C)

statistical significance of a difference between two sample means.

 

D)

frequency of scores at each level of some measure.

 

 

3.

Which research method did Jean Piaget use extensively in the process of developing his well-known theory of development?

 

A)

the survey

 

B)

naturalistic observation

 

C)

the case study

 

D)

experimentation

 

 

4.

As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that:

 

A)

people are unlikely to reveal what they are really thinking.

 

B)

most common sense ideas about human behavior are wrong.

 

C)

claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence.

 

D)

events never occur randomly.

 

 

5.

Six different high school students spent $10, $13, $2, $12, $13, and $4, respectively, on entertainment. The mode of this group's entertainment expenditures is:

 

A)

$9.

 

B)

$11.

 

C)

$12.

 

D)

$13.

 

 

6.

Mrs. Blair concludes that boys do not read as well as girls because the vast majority of students in her remedial reading classes are boys. Mrs. Blair's conclusion best illustrates the danger of:

 

A)

the hindsight bias.

 

B)

generalizing from select cases.

 

C)

confusing correlation with causation.

 

D)

random sampling.

 

 

7.

Two students in an art class are at least 20 years older than the others. Which measure of variation of class members' ages is most affected by the ages of these two students?

 

A)

standard deviation

 

B)

mode

 

C)

median

 

D)

range

 

 

8.

Hypotheses are best described as:

 

A)

assumptions.

 

B)

replications.

 

C)

explanations.

 

D)

predictions.

 

 

9.

A random sample of females was observed to exhibit a lower average level of self-esteem than a random sample of males. In order to assess the likelihood that this observed difference reflects a real difference in the average self-esteem of the total population of males and females, it is necessary to:

 

A)

construct a scatterplot.

 

B)

calculate a correlation coefficient.

 

C)

plot the distribution of self-esteem levels among all males and females.

 

D)

conduct a test of statistical significance.

 

 

10.

When psychologists insist that “the rat is always right,” they are emphasizing the scientific attitude of:

 

A)

humility.

 

B)

respect for animals.

 

C)

ecological sensitivity.

 

D)

enthusiasm for animal research studies.

 

 

11.

Because Julie thinks very highly of herself, she assumes that she is well regarded by most of her acquaintances. This conclusion best illustrates:

 

A)

the false consensus effect.

 

B)

the hindsight bias.

 

C)

the placebo effect.

 

D)

an illusion of control.

 

 

12.

In order to exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in:

 

A)

case studies.

 

B)

correlational research.

 

C)

experimentation.

 

D)

surveys.

 

 

13.

If psychologists discovered that people who live at the poverty level have more aggressive children than do wealthy people, this would clearly indicate that:

 

A)

poverty has a negative influence on children's behavior.

 

B)

the factors that lead to poverty also cause aggressive behavior.

 

C)

people's economic status and the aggressiveness of their children are negatively correlated.

 

D)

all the above are true.

 

 

14.

The perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists is called:

 

A)

the hindsight bias.

 

B)

the false consensus effect.

 

C)

an illusion of control.

 

D)

illusory correlation.

 

 

15.

If psychologists were to find that we are especially attracted to people whose traits are different from our own, this discovery would likely seem obvious and unsurprising to college students because:

 

A)

most students have had many personal experiences in which they were attracted to people quite different from themselves.

 

B)

this finding is consistent with common sense.

 

C)

college students are themselves very eager to interact with those who are different from themselves.

 

D)

students, like everyone else, have a tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past discoveries.

 

 

16.

In any distribution of scores, an equal number of scores are both greater than and less than:

 

A)

the mode.

 

B)

the mean.

 

C)

the median.

 

D)

all the above.

 

 

17.

Scientists who defend the use of animals in experimental research typically claim that:

 

A)

the well-being of humans should be placed above the well-being of animals.

 

B)

competent scientists have no justifiable reason to inflict pain on animals.

 

C)

animals should be used only in research that directly benefits the animals involved.

 

D)

allegations that pain is sometimes inflicted on animals are simply untrue.

 

 

18.

The false consensus effect refers to the tendency to:

 

A)

generalize from extreme cases.

 

B)

reject ideas that can't be scientifically tested.

 

C)

exaggerate the extent to which others agree with us.

 

D)

ignore disconfirming evidence.

 

 

19.

Which of the following techniques would be the most effective way of investigating the relationship between the political attitudes and the economic status of North Americans?

 

A)

the survey

 

B)

naturalistic observation

 

C)

experimentation

 

D)

the case study

 

 

20.

Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?

 

A)

standard deviation

 

B)

median

 

C)

correlation coefficient

 

D)

range

 

 

21.

In order to gain further understanding of how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observed and questioned two stroke victims. Which research method did Dr. Mosher employ?

 

A)

random sampling

 

B)

the survey

 

C)

the case study

 

D)

experimentation

 

 

22.

A correlation coefficient can range in value from:

 

A)

0 to 100.

 

B)

0 to 1.00.

 

C)

1 to 99.

 

D)

-1.00 to +1.00.

 

 

23.

Which of the following research methods would provide the most effective way of demonstrating that watching TV violence causes children to act aggressively?

 

A)

the experiment

 

B)

naturalistic observation

 

C)

the survey

 

D)

the case study

 

 

24.

The most accurate way of assessing the impact of hormone replacement therapy on women's health is by means of:

 

A)

case studies.

 

B)

experiments.

 

C)

correlational measurement.

 

D)

naturalistic observations.

 

 

25.

Research participants consumed either caffeinated or decaffeinated beverages in a study of the effects of caffeine on anxiety levels. Those who received the decaffeinated drinks were exposed to the ________ condition.

 

A)

survey

 

B)

experimental

 

C)

correlational

 

D)

control

 

 

26.

A random sample of a large group of people is one in which:

 

A)

the number of people included in the sample is determined by chance.

 

B)

every person in the large group has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

 

C)

personality differences among those in the sample are practically nonexistent.

 

D)

all the above are true.

 

 

27.

Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates:

 

A)

overconfidence.

 

B)

the hindsight bias.

 

C)

the placebo effect.

 

D)

negative correlation.

 

 

28.

In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in the ________ condition.

 

A)

dependent variable

 

B)

correlational

 

C)

experimental

 

D)

control

 

 

29.

According to Professor Bolden, his experimental research demonstrates that eating an apple every day improves children's reading skills. How might he best offer further support for the dependability of this finding?

 

A)

replication

 

B)

naturalistic observation

 

C)

case studies

 

D)

correlational research

 

 

30.

Statistical tests are useful for making ________ regarding differences between groups.

 

A)

scatterplots

 

B)

case studies

 

C)

inferences

 

D)

surveys

 

 

Chapter 2 (Neuroscience and Behavior)

 

 

1.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the:

 

A)

cell body.

 

B)

synaptic gap.

 

C)

myelin sheath.

 

D)

threshold.

 

2.

The reticular formation extends from the spinal cord up to the:

 

A)

thalamus.

 

B)

sensory cortex.

 

C)

angular gyrus.

 

D)

association areas.

 

3.

Which part of a neuron is often encased by the myelin sheath?

 

A)

axon

 

B)

synaptic gap

 

C)

cell body

 

D)

dendrite

 

4.

The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:

 

A)

amygdala.

 

B)

corpus callosum.

 

C)

myelin sheath.

 

D)

pituitary gland.

 

5.

The cells that serve as the basic building blocks of the body's information processing system are called:

 

A)

neurons.

 

B)

neurotransmitters.

 

C)

vesicles.

 

D)

genes.

 

6.

Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear?

 

A)

amygdala

 

B)

thalamus

 

C)

cerebellum

 

D)

medulla

 

7.

Prozac is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter:

 

A)

GABA.

 

B)

ACh.

 

C)

serotonin.

 

D)

dopamine.

 

8.

The region of your cerebral cortex that enables you to recognize a person as your own mother is:

 

A)

Wernicke's area.

 

B)

the limbic system.

 

C)

the angular gyrus.

 

D)

an association area.

 

9.

Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex:

 

A)

was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord.

 

B)

did not involve any activity within her central nervous system.

 

C)

was activated by the rapidly responding reticular formation of her brain.

 

D)

was activated by her self-regulating autonomic nervous system.

 

10.

L-dopa has been given to patients to control the:

 

A)

memory loss accompanying Alzheimer's disease.

 

B)

tremors accompanying Parkinson's disease.

 

C)

hallucinations accompanying schizophrenia.

 

D)

mood swings accompanying depression.

 

11.

The part of the left temporal lobe that is involved in understanding language is known as:

 

A)

Broca's area.

 

B)

the amygdala.

 

C)

Wernicke's area.

 

D)

the hippocampus.

 

12.

Seizures are likely to be associated with an:

 

A)

undersupply GABA and an oversupply of glutamate.

 

B)

oversupply GABA and an undersupply of glutamate.

 

C)

undersupply GABA and an undersupply of glutamate.

 

D)

oversupply GABA and an oversupply of glutamate.

 

13.

Phineas Gage underwent a dramatic personality change after a tamping iron inflicted massive damage to his ________ lobes.

 

A)

parietal

 

B)

temporal

 

C)

occipital

 

D)

frontal

 

14.

The sympathetic nervous system:

 

A)

stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat.

 

B)

inhibits digestion and accelerates heartbeat.

 

C)

stimulates digestion and accelerates heartbeat.

 

D)

inhibits digestion and slows heartbeat.

 

 

15.

Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites and influence the flow of ________ into receiving neurons.

 

A)

ions

 

B)

glial cells

 

C)

vesicles

 

D)

hormones

 

16.

Agonists are chemicals that may mimic the activity of:

 

A)

motor neurons.

 

B)

glial cells.

 

C)

synapses.

 

D)

neurotransmitters.

 

17.

In which brain structure are nerves from the left side of the brain routed to the right side of the body?

 

A)

thalamus

 

B)

cerebellum

 

C)

amygdala

 

D)

brainstem

 

18.

Professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as:

 

A)

biological psychology.

 

B)

psychoanalysis.

 

C)

cognitive psychology.

 

D)

behavior genetics.

 

19.

Because neural communication occurs within the context of both cultural influences and individual mental processes, people are best understood as:

 

A)

genetic profiles.

 

B)

action potentials.

 

C)

biopsychosocial systems.

 

D)

homo sapiens.

 

20.

If a neurosurgeon directly stimulated parts of your sensory cortex, which of the following would you most likely experience?

 

A)

indistinct odors

 

B)

flashes of light

 

C)

repetitive sounds

 

D)

a sense of being touched

 

21.

Neurotransmitter receptor sites are primarily located on the:

 

A)

dendrites.

 

B)

myelin sheath.

 

C)

glial cells.

 

D)

axon terminals.

 

 

22.

A picture of a cat is briefly flashed in the left visual field and a picture of a mouse is briefly flashed in the right visual field of a splitbrain patient. The individual will be able to use her:

 

A)

right hand to indicate she saw a cat.

 

B)

left hand to indicate she saw a mouse.

 

C)

right hand to indicate she saw a mouse.

 

D)

left or right hand to indicate she saw a cat.

 

23.

Recording electrodes are placed directly on the scalp to produce a(n):

 

A)

EEG.

 

B)

PET scan.

 

C)

MRI.

 

D)

fMRI.

 

24.

After suffering a stroke that damaged his angular gyrus, Mr. Chang is likely to experience the greatest difficulty:

 

A)

recognizing familiar faces.

 

B)

speaking fluently.

 

C)

understanding other people when they speak.

 

D)

reading.

 

25.

Which nerve network in the brainstem plays an important role in controlling arousal?

 

A)

reticular formation

 

B)

hypothalamus

 

C)

cerebellum

 

D)

medulla

 

26.

A loss of physical coordination and balance is most likely to result from damage to the:

 

A)

hypothalamus.

 

B)

cerebellum.

 

C)

corpus callosum.

 

D)

amygdala.

 

27.

Which regions of the cerebral cortex lie at the back of the head and receive visual information?

 

A)

occipital lobes

 

B)

parietal lobes

 

C)

temporal lobes

 

D)

association areas

 

28.

The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called:

 

A)

evolutionary psychology.

 

B)

behavior genetics.

 

C)

biological psychology.

 

D)

phrenology.

 

 

29.

Which region of the human brain best distinguishes us from other animals?

 

A)

reticular formation

 

B)

cerebral cortex

 

C)

limbic system

 

D)

hypothalamus

 

 

30.

The right hemisphere is superior to the left at:

 

A)

solving arithmetic problems.

 

B)

recognizing people's faces.

 

C)

understanding simple verbal requests.

 

D)

processing information in an orderly sequence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3 (Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity)

 

1.

Genetic influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing ________ with ________.

 

A)

identical twins raised together; identical twins raised apart

 

B)

fraternal twins raised together; fraternal twins raised apart

 

C)

identical twins raised together; fraternal twins raised together

 

D)

fraternal twins raised apart; identical twins raised together

 

2.

Men rape women much more frequently than women rape men. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely explain this in terms of sex differences in:

 

A)

individualism.

 

B)

reproductive capacity.

 

C)

gender-typing.

 

D)

body size.

 

3.

Compared with women, men are more likely to:

 

A)

report low levels of marital satisfaction.

 

B)

smile at members of the opposite sex.

 

C)

perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on.

 

D)

attribute their first sexual behaviors to feelings of affection.

 

4.

Compared with Asian parents, North American parents today place:

 

A)

more emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty.

 

B)

less emphasis on obedience and more emphasis on family loyalty.

 

C)

more emphasis on obedience and more emphasis on family loyalty.

 

D)

less emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty.

 

5.

By insisting that humans are “nothing but” products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining:

 

A)

collectivism.

 

B)

individual responsibility.

 

C)

natural selection.

 

D)

gender identity.

 

6.

Carlos was born with cataracts in both eyes. Even though they were removed when he was 5, his lack of visual experiences during early childhood makes it likely that he has experienced:

 

A)

degeneration of neural connections in visual reception areas of the brain.

 

B)

an inability to develop heritable traits.

 

C)

difficulty incorporating new experiences into existing schemas.

 

D)

a massive loss of sensory neurons.

 

7.

Adopted children grow up to be ________ self-giving and altruistic than average, and they typically score ________ than their biological parents on the intelligence tests.

 

A)

more; lower

 

B)

less; higher

 

C)

more; higher

 

D)

less; lower

 

8.

In a collectivist culture, individuals are likely to avoid:

 

A)

displaying personal humility.

 

B)

embarrassing other people.

 

C)

prolonging conversations.

 

D)

all of the above.

 

9.

In a group discussion, women are ________ likely than men to express support for others' opinions. As group leaders, women are ________ likely than men to promote a democratic leadership style.

 

A)

less; more

 

B)

more; less

 

C)

less; less

 

D)

more; more

 

10.

Compared with the average man, the average woman is:

 

A)

less likely to become sexually re-aroused immediately after orgasm.

 

B)

more likely to commit suicide.

 

C)

less likely to express emotions freely.

 

D)

more vulnerable to depression and anxiety.

 

11.

The nucleus of your body cells contains:

 

A)

DNA molecules.

 

B)

chromosomes.

 

C)

genes.

 

D)

all of the above.

 

12.

A researcher who assesses the heritability of intelligence is most likely a(n):

 

A)

gender schema theorist.

 

B)

evolutionary psychologist.

 

C)

behavior geneticist.

 

D)

collectivist.

 

13.

A baby girl receives a(n):

 

A)

Y chromosome from her father.

 

B)

Y chromosome from her mother.

 

C)

Y chromosome from her father and mother.

 

D)

X chromosome from her father and mother.

 

14.

Temperament is an individual's characteristic level of:

 

A)

social connectedness.

 

B)

emotional reactivity.

 

C)

physical health.

 

D)

intelligence.

 

15.

Compared to men, women are more likely to show obvious signs of:

 

A)

gender-typing.

 

B)

temperament.

 

C)

interdependence.

 

D)

self-esteem.

 

 

16.

Compared with men, women are ________ likely to cite affection as a reason for first intercourse and ________ likely to refuse direct requests for casual sex.

 

A)

less; more

 

B)

more; more

 

C)

less; less

 

D)

more; less

 

17.

Social norms have been found to:

 

A)

facilitate smooth social interaction.

 

B)

vary from one culture to another.

 

C)

free people from uncertainty about how they ought to behave.

 

D)

do all of the above.

 

18.

The threadlike structures that contain genes are called:

 

A)

synapses.

 

B)

schemas.

 

C)

chromosomes.

 

D)

genomes.

 

19.

American students are more likely than Japanese students to describe themselves in terms of their:

 

A)

personal traits.

 

B)

social roles.

 

C)

ethnic background.

 

D)

group memberships.

 

20.

The impact of rewards and punishments on gender-typing is most clearly emphasized by:

 

A)

evolutionary psychology.

 

B)

gender schema theory.

 

C)

behavior genetics.

 

D)

social learning theory.

 

21.

The heritability of a specific trait will be lowest among:

 

A)

genetically similar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.

 

B)

genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.

 

C)

genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.

 

D)

genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.

 

22.

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that men will marry women who are ________ than they are.

 

A)

less physically attractive

 

B)

more sexually experienced

 

C)

younger

 

D)

more aggressive toward sexual rivals

 

23.

The best reason to be cautious about attributing all the personality similarities of separated twins to genetic factors is that:

 

A)

home environments have less impact on personality than does peer influence.

 

B)

adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes.

 

C)

infant temperaments have a strong impact on personality development.

 

D)

adopted children's personalities are highly similar to those of their adoptive parents.

 

24.

During a mixed-sex group conversation, men are more likely than women to:

 

A)

stare at members of the opposite sex.

 

B)

determine what topics to discuss.

 

C)

interrupt other speakers.

 

D)

do all the above.

 

25.

An integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender roles, sex hormones, and individual expectations regarding gender appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by:

 

A)

gender schema theory.

 

B)

molecular genetics.

 

C)

a biopsychosocial approach.

 

D)

evolutionary psychology.

 

26.

Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:

 

A)

differences among cultural groups largely reflect genetic differences among racial groups.

 

B)

developmental processes are highly similar among individuals raised in different cultures.

 

C)

differences among cultural groups are greater than person-to-person differences within cultural groups.

 

D)

gender differences in behavior result from differences in biology rather than from differences in life experience.

 

27.

Elton responds to his daughter's fistfight with, “Good girls don't fight!” but when his son has a fistfight he says, “Did you win?!” The role of Elton's reactions in the gender-typing of his children would be of most direct interest to:

 

A)

behavior geneticists.

 

B)

social learning theorists.

 

C)

evolutionary psychologists.

 

D)

gender schema theorists.

 

28.

Innovation and creativity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by:

 

A)

gender-typing.

 

B)

collectivism.

 

C)

heritability.

 

D)

individualism.

 

29.

Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted:

 

A)

reproductive success.

 

B)

personal happiness.

 

C)

cultural diversity.

 

D)

individualism.

 

30.

Assessing the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences in personality would be of most direct interest to:

 

A)

evolutionary psychologists.

 

B)

gender schema theorists.

 

C)

behavior geneticists.

 

D)

Freudian psychologists.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5 (Sensation)

 

 

1.

The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:

 

A)

priming.

 

B)

synaesthesia.

 

C)

accommodation.

 

D)

sensation.

 

2.

For some people, hearing certain sounds may activate color-sensitive regions of the cortex so as to trigger a sensation of color. This phenomenon is called:

 

A)

tinnitus.

 

B)

blindsight.

 

C)

synaesthesia.

 

D)

kinesthesis.

 

3.

When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of:

 

A)

sensory interaction.

 

B)

feature detection.

 

C)

perceptual adaptation.

 

D)

accommodation.

 

4.

Loudness is to amplitude as pitch is to:

 

A)

brightness.

 

B)

hue.

 

C)

rhythm.

 

D)

frequency.

 

5.

Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ______ of a sound.

 

A)

pitch

 

B)

loudness

 

C)

location

 

D)

amplitude

 

6.

If a partially deaf person's hearing ability ________, his or her absolute threshold for sound ________.

 

A)

improves; remains unchanged

 

B)

worsens; decreases

 

C)

worsens; remains unchanged

 

D)

improves; decreases

 

7.

Our sense of taste originally was thought to involve only the following four sensations:

 

A)

sweet, salty, starch, and bitter.

 

B)

salty, fatty, bitter, and sweet.

 

C)

sour, bitter, sweet, and starchy.

 

D)

bitter, sweet, sour, and salty.

 

 

8.

Opponent-process cells have been located in the:

 

A)

thalamus.

 

B)

cochlea.

 

C)

spinal cord.

 

D)

semicircular canals.

 

 

9.

People's memories of the pain involved in a previously experienced medical procedure are dominated by the:

 

A)

pain experienced during the first moments of the procedure.

 

B)

pain experienced during the final moments of the procedure.

 

C)

total duration of the pain associated with the procedure.

 

D)

total duration of the procedure itself.

 

 

10.

Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

 

A)

encoding; detection

 

B)

detection; interpretation

 

C)

interpretation; organization

 

D)

organization; accommodation

 

 

11.

Research participants who listened repeatedly to commercial subliminal tapes designed to improve self-esteem subsequently demonstrated ________ in their self-esteem test scores.

 

A)

dramatic improvement

 

B)

moderate improvement

 

C)

no improvement

 

D)

dramatic deterioration

 

12.

Mrs. Acheube is just beginning to experience sensorineural hearing loss. She is likely to have the greatest difficulty hearing sounds of:

 

A)

low frequency and low amplitude.

 

B)

low frequency and high amplitude

 

C)

high frequency and low amplitude

 

D)

high frequency and high amplitude

 

13.

According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the:

 

A)

release of pain-killing endorphins in your brain.

 

B)

activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord.

 

C)

arousal of your autonomic nervous system and the release of adrenaline into your bloodstream.

 

D)

deactivation of the pain receptors on the surface of your skin.

 

 

14.

A time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately:

 

A)

locating sounds.

 

B)

detecting pitch.

 

C)

recognizing rhythms.

 

D)

judging amplitude.

15.

When informed that a brief imperceptible message would be flashed repeatedly during a popular TV program, many viewers reported feeling strangely hungry or thirsty during the show. Since the imperceptible message had nothing to do with hunger or thirst, viewers' strange reactions best illustrate:

 

A)

the McGurk effect.

 

B)

sensory adaptation.

 

C)

the volley principle.

 

D)

accommodation.

 

16.

Subliminally presented stimuli:

 

A)

can sometimes be consciously perceived.

 

B)

effectively influence purchases of consumer goods.

 

C)

increase our absolute thresholds for visual images.

 

D)

are usually mentally processed as completely as any other stimuli.

 

17.

Brightness is to intensity as hue is to:

 

A)

amplitude.

 

B)

timbre.

 

C)

pitch.

 

D)

wavelength.

 

18.

Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called:

 

A)

feature detection.

 

B)

accommodation.

 

C)

kinesthesis.

 

D)

sensory interaction.

 

19.

During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly ever detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's:

 

A)

subliminal threshold.

 

B)

absolute threshold.

 

C)

adaptation threshold.

 

D)

difference threshold.

 

 

20.

According to place theory, the perception of:

 

A)

low-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the eardrum closest to the oval window.

 

B)

high-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the eardrum closest to the oval window.

 

C)

low-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.

 

D)

high-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.

 

 

21.

Taste receptors are located:

 

A)

on the top of the tongue.

 

B)

on the sides of the tongue.

 

C)

on the roof of the mouth.

 

D)

in all of the above places.

22.

Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates:

 

A)

sensory adaptation.

 

B)

synaesthesia.

 

C)

blindsight.

 

D)

the McGurk effect.

 

 

23.

The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to:

 

A)

hearing.

 

B)

kinesthesis.

 

C)

the vestibular sense.

 

D)

accommodation.

 

 

24.

Long sound waves are to short sound waves as a ________ voice is to a ________ voice.

 

A)

loud; soft

 

B)

soprano; bass

 

C)

soft; loud

 

D)

bass; soprano

 

 

25.

The cochlea is a:

 

A)

fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.

 

B)

fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position.

 

C)

fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of body movement.

 

D)

set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum.

 

 

26.

The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by:

 

A)

the Young-Helmholtz theory.

 

B)

the gate-control theory.

 

C)

frequency theory.

 

D)

the opponent-process theory.

 

 

27.

Complete sensation in the absence of complete perception is best illustrated by:

 

A)

prosopagnosia.

 

B)

conduction deafness.

 

C)

color constancy.

 

D)

sensory interaction.

 

 

28.

The blind spot is located in the area of the retina:

 

A)

called the fovea.

 

B)

that contains rods but no cones.

 

C)

where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

 

D)

where bipolar cells connect with ganglion cells.

29.

The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone's message.

 

A)

rod

 

B)

ganglion cell

 

C)

blind spot

 

D)

bipolar cell

 

 

30.

People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their:

 

A)

cornea.

 

B)

lens.

 

C)

fovea.

 

D)

visual cortex.